J. E. Baik, K. S. Jang, S. S. Kang, C. H. Yun, K. Lee et al., Calcium hydroxide inactivates lipoteichoic acid from Enterococcus faecalis through deacylation of the lipid moiety, J Endotoxin Res, vol.37, pp.191-196, 2011.

M. J. Baron and D. L. Kasper, Anchors away: contribution of a glycolipid anchor to bacterial invasion of host cells, J Clin Investig, vol.115, pp.2325-2327, 2005.

M. Batley, J. W. Redmond, and A. J. Wicken, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of lipoteichoic acid, Biochim Biophys Acta, vol.901, pp.127-137, 1987.

B. A. Bidlingmeyer, S. A. Cohen, and T. L. Tarvin, Rapid analysis of amino acids using pre-column derivatization, J Chromatogr, vol.336, pp.85133-85139, 1984.

L. Blanc, R. Castanier, A. K. Mishra, A. Ray, G. S. Besra et al., Gram-Positive Bacterial Lipoglycans Based on a Glycosylated Diacylglycerol Lipid Anchor Are Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns Recognized by TLR2, PLoS ONE, vol.8, p.81593, 2013.

G. Casula and S. M. Cutting, Bacillus probiotics: spore germination in the gastrointestinal tract, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.68, pp.2344-2352, 2002.

K. G. Chan, M. Mayer, E. M. Davis, S. A. Halperin, T. Lin et al., Role of D-alanylation of Streptococcus gordonii lipoteichoic acid in innate and adaptive immunity, Infect Immun, vol.75, pp.3033-3042, 2007.

P. Chen, T. T. Toribara, and H. Warner, Microdetermination of phosphorus, Anal Chem, vol.28, pp.1756-1758, 1956.

M. Cot, A. Ray, M. Gilleron, A. Vercellone, G. Larrouy-maumus et al., Lipoteichoic acid in Streptomyces hygroscopicus: structural model and immunomodulatory activities, PLoS ONE, vol.6, p.26316, 2011.

S. M. Cutting, Bacillus probiotics, Food Microbiol, vol.28, pp.214-220, 2011.

W. Dammermann, L. Wollenberg, F. Bentzien, A. Lohse, and S. Luth, Toll like receptor 2 agonists lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan are able to enhance antigen specific IF-Ngamma release in whole blood during recall antigen responses, J Immunol Methods, vol.396, pp.107-115, 2013.

S. Deininger, A. Stadelmaier, S. Von-aulock, S. Morath, R. R. Schmidt et al., Definition of structural prerequisites for lipoteichoic acid-inducible cytokine induction by synthetic derivatives, J Immunol, vol.170, pp.4134-4138, 2003.

S. Deininger, S. Traub, D. Aichele, T. Rupp, T. Baris et al., Presentation of lipoteichoic acid potentiates its inflammatory activity, Immunobiology, vol.213, pp.519-529, 2008.

L. H. Duc, H. A. Hong, and S. M. Cutting, Germination of the spore in the gastrointestinal tract provides a novel route for heterologous antigen delivery, Vaccine, vol.21, pp.4215-4224, 2003.

W. Fischer, S. Markwitz, and H. Labischinski, Small Angle X Ray Scattering Analysis of Pneumococcal Lipoteichoic Acid Phase Structure, Eur J Biochem, vol.244, pp.913-917, 1997.

K. Fischer, K. Stein, A. J. Ulmer, B. Lindner, H. Heine et al., Cytokine-inducing lipoteichoic acids of the allergyprotective bacterium Lactococcus lactis G121 do not activate via Toll-like receptor 2, Glycobiology, vol.21, pp.1588-1595, 2011.

N. Fittipaldi, T. Sekizaki, D. Takamatsu, J. Harel, C. De-la et al., D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid contributes to the virulence of Streptococcus suis, Infect Immun, vol.76, pp.3587-3594, 2008.

R. Garimella, J. L. Halye, W. Harrison, P. E. Klebba, and C. V. Rice, Conformation of the phosphate D-alanine zwitterion in bacterial teichoic acid from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Biochemistry, vol.48, pp.9242-9249, 2009.

I. Ginsburg, Role of lipoteichoic acid in infection and inflammation, Lancet Infect Dis, vol.2, pp.226-234, 2002.

N. Gisch, T. Kohler, A. J. Ulmer, J. Müthing, T. Pribyl et al., Structural reevaluation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Lipoteichoic acid and new insights into its immunostimulatory potency, J Biol Chem, vol.288, pp.15654-15667, 2013.

C. Grangette, S. Nutten, E. Palumbo, S. Morath, C. Hermann et al., Enhanced antiinflammatory capacity of a Lactobacillus plantarum mutant synthesizing modified teichoic acids, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.102, pp.10321-10326, 2005.

L. C. Green, D. A. Wagner, J. Glogowski, P. L. Skipper, J. S. Wishnok et al., Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [ 15 N]nitrate in biological fluids, Anal Biochem, vol.126, pp.131-138, 1982.

J. Greenberg, W. Fischer, and K. Joiner, Influence of lipoteichoic acid structure on recognition by the macrophage scavenger receptor, Infect Immun, vol.64, pp.3318-3325, 1996.

S. H. Han, J. H. Kim, M. Martin, S. M. Michalek, and M. H. Nahm, Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is not as potent as staphylococcal LTA in stimulating Toll-like receptor 2, Infect Immun, vol.71, pp.5541-5548, 2003.

M. Heyman and E. Heuvelin, Probiotic micro-organisms and immune regulation: the paradox. Paper presented at the Métabolisme Nce (ed) VIe Symposium nutrition « Intervention nutritionnelle : de la prévention à la thérapeutique, 2005.

H. A. Hong, L. H. Duc, and S. M. Cutting, The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics, FEMS Microbiol Rev, vol.29, pp.813-835, 2005.

S. W. Hong, J. E. Baik, S. S. Kang, C. H. Yun, D. G. Seo et al., Lipoteichoic acid of Streptococcus mutans interacts with Toll-like receptor 2 through the lipid moiety for induction of inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages, Mol Immunol, vol.57, pp.284-291, 2014.

G. Hsiao, H. Huang, T. Fong, M. Shen, C. Lin et al., Inhibitory mechanisms of YC-1 and PMC in the induction of iNOS expression by lipoteichoic acid in RAW 264.7 macrophages, Biochem Pharmacol, vol.67, pp.1411-1419, 2004.

H. Iwasaki, A. Shimada, K. Yokoyama, and E. Ito, Structure and glycosylation of lipoteichoic acids in Bacillus strains, J Bacteriol, vol.171, pp.424-429, 1989.

K. Jang, J. E. Baik, S. H. Han, D. K. Chung, and B. Kim, Multispectrometric analyses of lipoteichoic acids isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, vol.407, pp.823-830, 2011.

G. S. Jensen, K. F. Benson, S. G. Carter, and J. R. Endres, Gan-edenBC30 TM cell wall and metabolites: anti-inflammatory and immune modulating effects in vitro, BMC Immunol, vol.11, p.15, 2010.

M. S. Jin, S. E. Kim, J. Y. Heo, M. E. Lee, H. M. Kim et al., Crystal structure of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer induced by binding of a tri-acylated lipopeptide, Cell, vol.130, pp.1071-1082, 2007.

J. Y. Kang, X. Nan, M. S. Jin, S. Youn, Y. H. Ryu et al., Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer, Immunity, vol.31, pp.873-884, 2009.

S. Kang, Y. H. Ryu, J. E. Baik, C. Yun, K. Lee et al., Lipoteichoic acid from Lactobacillus plantarum induces nitric oxide production in the presence of interferon-c in murine macrophages, Mol Immunol, vol.48, pp.2170-2177, 2011.

M. Kengatharan, S. J. Kimpe, and C. Thiemermann, Analysis of the signal transduction in the induction of nitric oxide synthase by lipoteichoic acid in macrophages, Br J Pharmacol, vol.117, pp.1163-1170, 1996.

H. G. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. Kim, M. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee et al., Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on Staphylococcus aureus LTA-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, J Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.18, pp.1191-1196, 2008.

M. R. Kimbrell, H. Warshakoon, J. R. Cromer, S. Malladi, J. D. Hood et al., Comparison of the immunostimulatory and proinflammatory activities of candidate Gram-positive endotoxins, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptides, in murine and human cells, Immunol Lett, vol.118, pp.132-141, 2008.

S. Lebeer, J. Vanderleyden, D. Keersmaecker, and S. C. , Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: comparison with commensals and pathogens, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.8, pp.171-184, 2010.

S. Lebeer, I. J. Claes, and J. Vanderleyden, Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotics: lipoteichoic acid makes a difference, Trends Microbiol, vol.20, pp.5-10, 2012.

K. Leopold and W. Fischer, Heterogeneity of lipoteichoic acid detected by anion exchange chromatography, Arch Microbiol, vol.157, pp.446-450, 1992.

G. Lepage and C. C. Roy, Direct transesterification of all classes of lipids in a one-step reaction, J Lipid Res, vol.27, pp.114-120, 1986.

T. Leser, A. Knarreborg, and J. Worm, Germination and outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis spores in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs, J Appl Microbiol, vol.104, pp.1025-1033, 2008.

Y. Li, S. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Li, F. Shi et al., Differentiation of bacteria using fatty acid profiles from gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, J Sci Food Agric, vol.90, pp.1380-1383, 2010.

G. L. Marseglia, M. Tosca, I. Cirillo, A. Licari, M. Leone et al., Efficacy of Bacillus clausii spores in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children: a pilot study, Ther Clin Risk Manag, vol.3, pp.13-17, 2007.

P. Mazza, The use of Bacillus subtilis as an antidiarrhoeal microorganism, Boll Chim Farm, vol.133, pp.3-18, 1994.

M. Mohamadzadeh, E. A. Pfeiler, J. B. Brown, M. Zadeh, M. Gramarossa et al., Regulation of induced colonic inflammation by Lactobacillus acidophilus deficient in lipoteichoic acid, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.108, pp.4623-4630, 2011.

S. Morath, A. Geyer, and T. Hartung, Structure-Function Relationship of Cytokine Induction by Lipoteichoic Acid from Staphylococcus aureus, J Exp Med, vol.193, pp.393-398, 2001.

S. Morath, A. Geyer, I. Spreitzer, C. Hermann, and T. Hartung, Structural decomposition and heterogeneity of commercial lipoteichoic acid preparations, Infect Immun, vol.70, pp.938-944, 2002.

S. Morath, A. Stadelmaier, A. Geyer, R. R. Schmidt, and T. Hartung, Synthetic lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus is a potent stimulus of cytokine release, J Exp Med, vol.195, pp.1635-1640, 2002.

S. Morath, S. Von-aulock, and T. Hartung, Structure/function relationships of lipoteichoic acids, J Endotoxin Res, vol.11, pp.348-356, 2005.

F. C. Neuhaus and J. Baddiley, A continuum of anionic charge: structures and functions of D-alanyl-teichoic acids in grampositive bacteria, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, vol.67, pp.686-723, 2003.

N. J. Nilsen, S. Deininger, U. Nonstad, F. Skjeldal, H. Husebye et al., Cellular trafficking of lipoteichoic acid and Toll-like receptor 2 in relation to signaling; role of CD14 and CD36, J Leukoc Biol, vol.84, pp.280-291, 2008.

A. Peschel, How do bacteria resist human antimicrobial peptides?, Trends Microbiol, vol.10, pp.2333-2341, 2002.

A. Ray, M. Cot, G. Puzo, M. Gilleron, and J. Nigou, Bacterial cell wall macroamphiphiles: pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns detected by mammalian innate immune system, Biochimie, vol.95, pp.33-42, 2013.

N. T. Reichmann and A. Gründling, Location, synthesis and function of glycolipids and polyglycerolphosphate lipoteichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, FEMS Microbiol Lett, vol.319, pp.97-105, 2011.

P. Roethlisberger, N. Iida-tanaka, K. Hollemeyer, E. Heinzle, I. Ishizuka et al., Unique poly (glycerophosphate) lipoteichoic acid and the glycolipids of a Streptococcus sp. closely related to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Eur J Biochem, vol.267, pp.5520-5530, 2000.

Y. H. Ryu, J. E. Baik, J. S. Yang, S. Kang, J. Im et al., Differential immunostimulatory effects of Gram-positive bacteria due to their lipoteichoic acids, Int Immunopharmacol, vol.9, pp.127-133, 2009.

R. R. Schmidt, C. M. Pedersen, Y. Qiao, and U. Zähringer, Chemical synthesis of bacterial lipoteichoic acids: an insight on its biological significance, Org Biomol Chem, vol.9, pp.2040-2052, 2011.

, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol.106, p.705, 2014.

N. W. Schröder, S. Morath, C. Alexander, L. Hamann, T. Hartung et al., Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Tolllike receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved, J Biol Chem, vol.278, pp.15587-15594, 2003.

R. Schwandner, R. Dziarski, H. Wesche, M. Rothe, and C. J. Kirschning, Peptidoglycan-and lipoteichoic acid-induced cell activation is mediated by toll-like receptor 2, J Biol Chem, vol.274, pp.17406-17409, 1999.

T. Shiraishi, S. Yokota, N. Morita, S. Fukiya, S. Tomita et al., Characterization of a Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T lipoteichoic acid with a novel glycolipid anchor structure, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.79, pp.3315-3318, 2013.

M. C. Urdaci, P. Bressollier, and I. Pinchuk, Bacillus clausii probiotic strains: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, J Clin Gastroenterol, vol.38, pp.86-90, 2004.

M. P. Vélez, T. L. Verhoeven, C. Draing, V. Aulock, S. Pfitzenmaier et al., Functional analysis of D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.73, pp.3595-3604, 2007.

C. Weidenmaier and A. Peschel, Teichoic acids and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.6, pp.276-287, 2008.

A. Wicken and K. W. Knox, Lipoteichoic acids: a new class of bacterial antigen, Science, vol.187, pp.1161-1167, 1975.

A. Wicken, J. Evans, and K. Knox, Critical micelle concentrations of lipoteichoic acids, J Bacteriol, vol.166, pp.72-77, 1986.

M. E. Wörmann, R. M. Corrigan, P. J. Simpson, S. J. Matthews, and A. Gründling, Enzymatic activities and functional interdependencies of Bacillus subtilis lipoteichoic acid synthesis enzymes, Mol Microbiol, vol.79, pp.566-583, 2011.