Magnitude of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas in Benin: Findings from a Nationwide Steps Survey

Abstract : Data on variations in the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in sub-Saharan populations are limited, particularly with regard to Benin. Objective To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin. Methods Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural), were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 27.4, 32.5) and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5) respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender). Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4) and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7), p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5) and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4), p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4) and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6), p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups. Conclusion According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive interventions.
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PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2015, 10 (5), pp.e0126441. 〈10.1371/journal.pone.0126441〉
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Yessito Corine Nadège Houehanou, Philippe Lacroix, Gbedecon Carmelle Mizehoun, Pierre-Marie Preux, Benoit Marin, et al.. Magnitude of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas in Benin: Findings from a Nationwide Steps Survey. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2015, 10 (5), pp.e0126441. 〈10.1371/journal.pone.0126441〉. 〈hal-01502232〉

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