A. Allan, M. Massu, and C. Svarer, Banking on Change: Breaking the Barriers to Financial Inclusion, 2013.

F. Allen, E. Carletti, R. Cull, J. &. Qian, . Qj et al., The African Financial Development and Financial Inclusion Gaps, J. Afr. Econ, vol.23, pp.614-642, 2014.


C. Ambrosius and A. Cuecuecha, Remittances and the Use of Formal and Informal Financial Services, World Dev, vol.77, pp.80-98, 2015.

J. D. Angrist and J. S. Pischke, Mostly Harmless Econometrics : An Empiricist ' s Companion, 2008.

J. Aron, Leapfrogging ': a Survey of the Nature and Economic Implications of Mobile Money, pp.2017-2019, 2017.

A. , Association Professionnelle des Systèmes Financiers Décentralisés du Burkina Faso, 2014.

R. Aterido, T. Beck, and L. Iacovone, Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Is There a Gender Gap ? World Dev, vol.47, pp.102-120, 2013.

A. Banerjee and E. Duflo, The Economic Lives of the Poor, J. Econ. Perspect, vol.21, pp.1-22, 2007.

C. F. Baum, M. E. Schaffer, and S. Stillman, Enhanced routines for instrumental variables/generalized method of moments estimation and testing, Stata J, vol.7, pp.465-506, 2007.

, Commission Bancaire Rapport Annuel, 2014.

T. Beck, A. Demirgüç-kunt, and P. Honohan, Access to financial services: Measurement, impact, and policies, World Bank Res. Obs, vol.24, pp.119-145, 2009.


T. Beck, A. Demirguc-kunt, and M. S. Peria, Banking Services for Everyone? Barriers to Bank Access and Use around the World, World Bank Econ. Rev, vol.22, pp.397-430, 2008.


T. Beck, E. Feyen, A. Ize, and F. Moizeszowicz, Benchmarking Financial Development, Policy Res. Work. Pap, vol.4638, 2008.

M. Beise, Lead markets: Country-specific drivers of the global diffusion of innovations, Res. Policy, vol.33, pp.997-1018, 2004.

P. Bhandari, Connected Women Case study Airtel Uganda: A mobile money solutions for savings groups, 2015.

S. B. Carpenter and R. T. Jensen, Household participation in formal and informal savings mechanisms: Evidence from Pakistan, Rev. Dev. Econ, vol.6, pp.314-328, 2002.


G. Chowa, R. Masa, and M. Sherraden, Wealth Effects of an Asset-Building Intervention Among Rural Households in Sub-Saharan Africa, J. Soc. Social Work Res, vol.3, pp.329-345, 2012.

B. Christen and I. Mas, It's time to address the microsavings challenge, scalably. Enterp. Dev. Microfinance, vol.20, pp.274-285, 2009.

G. Christensen, The Limits to Informal Intermediation, World Dev, vol.21, pp.721-731, 1993.

L. De-koker and N. Jentzsch, Financial Inclusion and Financial Integrity: Aligned Incentives? World Dev, vol.44, pp.267-280, 2013.

A. Demirguc-kunt and L. Klapper, Measuring financial inclusion. The Global findex database, Policy Res. Work. Pap, vol.6025, pp.1-61, 2012.


A. Demirgüç-kunt and L. Klapper, Financial inclusion in Africa: an Overview, Policy Res. Work. Pap, vol.6088, 2012.

A. Demirgüç-kunt, L. Klapper, and D. Singer, Financial inclusion and legal discrimination against women: evidence from developing countries, Policy Res. Work. Pap, vol.6416, 2013.

A. Demirguc-kunt, L. Klapper, D. Singer, P. Oudheusden, . Van et al., The Global Findex Database 2014: The Promise of Mobile Money to Increase Financial inclusion. Findex notes #2014-9, 2015.

A. Demirguc-kunt, L. Klapper, D. Singer, and P. Van-oudheusden, The Global Findex Database 2014: Measuring Financial Inclusion around the World, Policy Res. Work. Pap, vol.7255, 2015.

A. Demirgüç-kunt and R. Levine, Finance and Economic Opportunity, Policy Res. Work. Pap. World Bank, 2008.

A. Dermish, C. Kneiding, P. Leishman, and I. Mas, Branchless and Mobile Banking Solutions for the Poor : A Survey of the Literature, Innov. Technol. Governance, Glob, vol.6, pp.81-98, 2012.

D. Dias and K. Mckee, Branchless Banking 2010: Who's Served? At What Price? What's Next?, Inf. Commun. Dev, 2010.

P. Dupas and J. Robinson, Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya, Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ, vol.5, pp.163-192, 2013.


P. Dupas and J. Robinson, Why don't the poor save more? Evidence from health savings experiments, Am. Econ. Rev, vol.103, pp.1138-1171, 2013.

N. Economides and P. Jeziorski, Mobile Money in Tanzania, Forthcom. Mark. Sci, pp.1-57, 2016.

M. Gash and B. Gray, Understanding Household Resilience of the Poor in Burkina Faso Interim Report. Consult. Gr. to Assist Poor Work, 2015.

J. J. Heckman, H. Ichimura, and P. Todd, Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator, Rev. Econ. Stud, pp.261-294, 1998.

K. Helmore, Tanzania: Linking savings groups to Mobile Banking, Access Africa Tech. Learn, issue.2, 2011.

P. Honohan and T. Beck, Making Finance Work for Africa, 2007.

W. Jack and T. Suri, Risk sharing and transactions costs: Evidence from Kenya's mobile money revolution, Am. Econ. Rev, vol.104, pp.183-223, 2014.

D. Karlan, A. L. Ratan, and J. Zinman, Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda, Rev. Income Wealth, vol.60, pp.36-78, 2014.

J. Kendall, A Penny Saved: How Do Savings Accounts Help the Poor? Financ. Access Initiat. Focus Note 1-22, 2010.

J. Kendall, B. Maurer, P. Machoka, and C. Veniard, An Emerging Platform: From Money Transfer System to Mobile Money Ecosystem, Innov. Technol. Governance, Glob, vol.6, pp.49-64, 2011.

J. Kendall, R. Schiff, and E. Smadja, Sub-Saharan Africa : A major potential revenue opportunity for digital payments, 2013.

S. Ky, C. Rugemintwari, and A. Sauviat, Does mobile money affect saving behavior ? Evidence from a developing country, Forthcom. J. African Econ, pp.1-36, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01360028


J. Lepoutre and A. Oguntoye, The (non-)emergence of mobile money systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative multilevel perspective of Kenya and Nigeria, Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol.131, pp.262-275, 2018.

F. Lin, Cross-country diffusion of ideology via FDI: Micro-evidence from China, Econ. Transit, vol.26, pp.3-34, 2018.

I. Mas, Making Mobile Money Daily Relevant. SSRN Electron, 2012.

I. Mas, The New Microfinance Handbook: A Financial Market System Perspective, Beyond Products: Building Integrated Customer Experiences, 2012.

I. Mas, Savings for the Poor, World Econ, vol.11, pp.1-12, 2010.

I. Mas and C. Mayer, Savings as Forward Payments : Innovations on Mobile Money Platforms, 2011.

. Forthcom and . Chapter, Financial Incl. poverty alleviation Bank. unbanked, London Routledge, pp.1-14

I. Mas and D. Porteous, Pathways to Smarter Digital Financial Inclusion. Forthcom. J. Financ. Transform, pp.1-28, 2015.

I. Mbiti and D. Weil, Mobile Banking: the Impact of M-Pesa in Kenya, African Successes, 2016.

I. Mbiti and D. N. Weil, Mobile Banking: The Impact of M-PESA in Kenya, Natl. Bur. Econ. Res, 2011.

O. Morawczynski, Saving Through the Mobile Phone-The Case of M-PESA, 2009.

M. Bull, , pp.7-14

O. Morawczynski and M. Pickens, Poor People Using Mobile Financial Services: Observations on Customer Usage and Impact from M-PESA, Consult. Gr. to Assist Poor, 2009.

O. Mothobi and L. Grzybowski, Infrastructure deficiencies and adoption of mobile money in Sub-Saharan Africa, Inf. Econ. Policy, vol.000, pp.1-9, 2017.


G. K. Munyegera and T. Matsumoto, Mobile Money, Remittances, and Household Welfare: Panel Evidence from Rural Uganda, World Dev, vol.79, pp.127-137, 2016.


A. Nair and R. Kloeppinger-todd, Reaching Rural Areas with Financial Services: Lessons from Financial Cooperatives in Brazil, Agric. Rural Dev. World Bank, 2007.

P. Oliveira and E. Von-hippel, Users as service innovators: The case of banking services, Res. Policy, vol.40, pp.806-818, 2011.

R. Pande, S. Cole, A. Sivasankaran, G. G. Bastian, and K. Durlacher, Does poor people's access to formal banking services raise their incomes ? EPPI-Centre, 2012.

D. Porteous, The Enabling Environment for Mobile Banking in Africa, Bankable Front. Assoc. Bost. USA, pp.1-57, 2006.

M. Ramada-sarasola, Can Mobile Money Systems Have a Measurable Impact on Local Development? Available SSRN, 2012.

A. O. Shem, R. Misati, and L. Njoroge, Factors driving usage of financial services from different financial access strands in Kenya, Savings Dev, vol.36, pp.71-89, 2012.

D. Thieba, Les Coopératives D ' Épargne et de Crédit au Burkina : Étude de Cas du Réseau des Caisses Populaires du Burkina Faso, 2013.

T. Triki and I. Faye, Financial inclusion in Africa: an overview, 2013.

P. Van-der-boor, P. Oliveira, and F. Veloso, Users as innovators in developing countries: The global sources of innovation and diffusion in mobile banking services, Res. Policy, vol.43, pp.1594-1607, 2014.

J. M. Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis of cross section and panel data, 2002.