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Availability, affordability, and quality of essential anti‐seizure medication in Cambodia

Abstract : Objective: Epilepsy is a major neurological disorder that requires long-term medical treatment. Once epilepsy is diagnosed, people with epilepsy face many difficulties in accessing treatment (treatment gap). Our objective was to assess the situation regarding the availability, price, affordability, and quality of anti-seizure medication (ASM), which are major determinants of access to treatment. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in provincial/district hospitals and private pharmacies in urban and rural areas in Cambodia. Data on ASM availability and price were obtained through drug suppliers. Affordability was estimated as the number of day wages the lowest-paid government employee must work to purchase a monthly treatment. Samples of ASM were collected, and the quality of ASM was assessed through Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guidelines. Results: Out of 138 outlets visited, only 72 outlets (52.2% [95% CI 43.5-60.7]) had at least one ASM available. Phenobarbital 100 mg was the most available (35.5%), followed by carbamazepine 200 mg (21.7%), phenobarbital 50 mg (11.6%), sodium valproate 500 mg (9.4%), and phenytoin 100 mg (9.4%). In provincial/district hospitals, ASM was provided free of charge. In private pharmacies, affordability for phenobarbital 50 mg and 100 mg was the best, with 0.6 and 0.5 days, respectively, compared to phenytoin 100 mg (1.8 days), and other ASM. No counterfeit ASM was found in this study. Phenytoin sample presented the worst quality (33.0%) compared to carbamazepine (27.8%), and other ASM. Significance: A lack of access to affordable and effective ASM due to low availability and poor quality of ASM was identified. Our research highlights the need for future policy efforts to ensure the quality of ASM and improve their availability. This can be achieved by involving the calculation of their annual needs for these drugs and increasing the national production of ASM.
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https://hal-unilim.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03276052
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Soumis le : jeudi 1 juillet 2021 - 16:04:47
Dernière modification le : mercredi 20 octobre 2021 - 01:31:13

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Noudy Sengxeu, Chanraksmey Aon, Hanh Dufat, Farid Boumediene, Samleng Chan, et al.. Availability, affordability, and quality of essential anti‐seizure medication in Cambodia. Epilepsia Open, The International League Against Epilepsy 2021, ⟨10.1002/epi4.12514⟩. ⟨hal-03276052⟩

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