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Cerebral mucormycosis: neuroimaging findings and histopathological correlation

Abstract : Introduction: Mucormycosis are infections caused by molds of the order Mucorales. These opportunistic infections are rare, difficult to diagnose, and have a poor prognosis. We aimed to describe common radiographic patterns that may help to diagnose cerebral mucormycosis and search for histopathological correlations with imaging data. Methods: We studied the radiological findings (CT and MRI) of 18 patients with cerebral mucormycosis and four patients' histopathological findings. Results: All patients were immunocompromised and/or diabetic. The type of lesions depended on the infection's dissemination pathway. Hematogenous dissemination lesions were most frequently abscesses (59 lesions), cortical, cortical-subcortical, or in the basal ganglia, with a halo aspect on DWI for lesions larger than 1.6 cm. Only seven lesions were enhanced after contrast injection, with different presentations depending on patients' immune status. Ischemia and hemorrhagic areas were also seen. Vascular lesions were represented by stenosis and thrombosis. Direct posterior extension lesions were bi-fronto basal hypodensities on CT and restricted diffusion without enhancement on MRI. A particular extension, perineural spread, was seen along the trigeminal nerve. Histopathological analysis found endovascular lesions with destruction of vessel walls by Mucorales, microbleeds around vessels, as well as acute and chronic inflammation. Conclusions: MRI is the critical exam for cerebral mucormycosis. Weak ring enhancement and reduced halo diffusion suggest the diagnosis of fungal infections. Involvement of the frontal lobes should raise suspicion of mucormycosis (along with aspergillosis). The perineural spread can be considered a more specific extension pathway of mucormycosis.
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https://hal-unilim.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03407674
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Soumis le : jeudi 28 octobre 2021 - 15:47:45
Dernière modification le : vendredi 5 novembre 2021 - 16:38:20

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UNILIM | HCL | GEIST | CNRS | NET

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François Lersy, Julie Royer-Leblond, Benoit Lhermitte, Agathe Chammas, Francis Schneider, et al.. Cerebral mucormycosis: neuroimaging findings and histopathological correlation. Journal of Neurology, Springer Verlag, 2021, ⟨10.1007/s00415-021-10701-8⟩. ⟨hal-03407674⟩

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